Sleep is such valuable and vital part of life and health. Almost six out of ten Americans report having sleeplessness and insomnia at least a few nights a week, according to the National Sleep Foundation. More and more research is being done that connects the benefits of good sleep to greater well-being, lower disease rates, more happiness, sharper mental capabilities and less fatigue.
A newly completed joint study from the Division of Sleep Disorders at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston has found that 204 college students have been benefited greatly by getting regular, good sleep. These students, who were between the ages of 18 and 25, participated in a 30-day study that measured their sleeping times and duration.
When the students made the transition from irregular sleep patterns to regular sleep during the week, there were measurable, significant improvements in their levels of evening and morning happiness, a higher level of healthiness and better calmness and composure during the week. There was even increased well-being on the day following the week of improved sleep.
The lead author, Akane Sano, PhD, who is a research scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, said that: “Irregular sleep-wake schedules are common in our modern society. Our results indicate the importance of sleep regularity, in addition to sleep duration, and that regular sleep is associated with improved well-being.”
In another interesting study that was published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, professional baseball players increased their hours of sleep over a five night period and then demonstrated significant improvements in mental processing speed. In addition, their tension, fatigue and sleepiness during the day, all decreased by over one-third.
Cheri D. Mah, lead researcher at the University of California San Francisco Human Performance Center said: “Our study indicates that short-term sleep extension of one additional hour for five days resulted in demonstrated benefits for the visual search abilities of athletes, as well as improvement in their quick response. Fatigue over a season can negatively impact performance and sleep extension during periods of high training volumes may be a practical recovery strategy.”
For a nutritional approach to insomnia, the minerals calcium and magnesium have been shown to be effective sleep remedies that can increase the quality of life. In a study from the University of Medical Sciences in Iran, research was done with 46 adults who were experiencing insomnia. Taking magnesium oxide tablets resulted in significant increases in sleep time and reduced the cortisol levels in their bodies, which is a stress hormone that can keep people awake.
In another research study from the Human Nutrition Research Center of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, scientists found that a high magnesium diet is associated with deeper, less interrupted sleep. Foods high in magnesium include green leafy vegetables, black beans, pumpkin seeds, almonds, avocados, figs, bananas, brown rice, and nuts and seeds.
One supplement with highly absorbable forms of magnesium and calcium is Sleep Minerals II from Nutrition Breakthroughs. These are the most well researched minerals for insomnia and waking during the night, as well as for heart health, aches and pains, bone strength and menopause insomnia. Sleep Minerals II includes vitamin D and zinc and is delivered in a softgel form with healthy carrier oils, making it more quickly absorbable than tablets or capsules. This provides a deeper, longer-lasting sleep.
L.R.C. of Massachusetts says: “I had become dependent on sleeping drugs and couldn’t sleep without them. Now I take the Sleep Minerals before bed and I can sleep through the night without drugs. I’m also able to easily fall back to sleep if I do have to get up. Another benefit is it helps alleviate my chronic fatigue and aches and pains.”
The benefits of achieving better sleep are appearing in countless research studies and the energy invested in obtaining it is well worth the effort. For more information, visit the Sleep Minerals II page.
By Dr. Joseph Mercola, a physician trained in both traditional and natural medicine who provides up-to-date natural health information
Shared by Nutrition Breakthroughs,
maker of the effective calcium and magnesium based sleep aid Sleep Minerals II
If you’re seeking to lose excess weight, counting calories is usually less than helpful. In fact, focusing on calories could easily divert you from the real answer, which lies in optimizing your nutrition.
In short, if you really want to lose weight and improve your health, then you must replace empty calories and denatured foods with nutrient-rich ones. (Denatured foods are those that have had their natural benefits or properties removed or altered).
Nutritional Value Beats Calorie Count
Fortunately, even conventional health experts are now starting to catch on, and rather than looking at calories, they suggest looking at the nutritional value of the foods you eat.
As reported by Medical Daily:
“An editorial published in Open Heart suggests the outdated practice of counting calories has to go…
‘Shifting the focus away from calories and emphasizing a dietary pattern that focuses on food quality rather than quantity will help to rapidly reduce obesity, related diseases, and cardiovascular risk,’ the research team said in a statement.
‘Primary and secondary care clinicians have a duty to their individual patients and also to their local populations. Our collective failure to act is an option we cannot afford.'”
Why Counting Calories Doesn’t Work
According to the calorie myth, in order to lose weight all you need to do is follow the equation of “eat less, move more.” But this simply isn’t true.
Zoe Harcombe’s book, “The Obesity Epidemic”, is one of the most comprehensive documents I’ve ever seen that exposes the flaws of this myth.
Research by Dr. Robert Lustig has also shredded this dogmatic belief, showing that not even calories from different kinds of sugar are treated identically by your body.
Part of the problem is a fundamental error in the understanding of the law of thermodynamics. Energy is actually used up in making nutrients available in your body.
Your body also self-regulates the amount of activity you engage in, based on the available energy. If your energy stores are low, you’ll feel lethargic and unlikely to exercise, even if you know you “should.”
As noted in the featured article:
“Results of the Action for Health in Diabetes study have shown that type 2 diabetes patients who adopt a lower calorie diet on top of increased physical activity have the same risk for death caused by a heart condition, even if the diet resulted in substantial weight loss.
The research team suggests that simple dietary changes that focus on macronutrients (fat, carbs, and protein) and sugar consumption rather than calorie counting can efficiently improve health outcomes.”
Seven of the Most Nutrient-Dense Foods on the Planet
You can only eat so much in a day, and if you consider your stomach to be “prime real estate,” you’d be wise to consider the nutritional value of the foods you’re putting in it. Some foods pack far more nutrients into a smaller package than others.
For example, while many equate eating salad with optimizing their diet, this is not necessarily true, depending on what’s in your salad. If lettuce and cucumbers make up the majority of that bulk, you’re getting plenty of water, yes, but few valuable nutrients.
A recent article in Valley News also points out that lettuce “occupies precious crop acreage, requires fossil fuels to be shipped, refrigerated… and adds nothing but crunch to the plate.”
Authority Nutrition lists 11 foods densely packed with valuable nutrients. Here are my own top seven picks. For additional suggestions see the original article on Authority Nutrition:
Wild-caught Alaskan salmon
When it comes to fish, two things to take into account are 1) healthy fat content, and 2) contamination levels.
Wild-caught Alaskan salmon is likely one of the best seafood options as it’s high in omega-3 fat (about 2.8 grams per 100 gram serving) and low in contaminants.
About 95 percent of your cells’ membranes are made of fat, and without fats such as omega-3, your cells cannot function properly.
Since wild salmon eat what nature programmed them to eat, they have a more complete nutritional profile, with valuable micronutrients, fats, minerals (including magnesium, potassium, and selenium), vitamins (including all the B-vitamins), and antioxidants like astaxanthin.
Avoid farmed salmon, as they’re fed an artificial diet consisting of grain products like corn and soy, chicken and feather meal, artificial coloring, and synthetic astaxanthin (an orange pigment) — all of which negatively affects the nutritional profile of farmed salmon.
Bone broth is exceptionally healing for your gut, and contains a number of valuable nutrients that many Americans lack, in a form your body can easily absorb and use.
This includes but is not limited to: calcium, phosphorus, and other minerals; silicon and other trace minerals; glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate; components of collagen and cartilage; components of bone and bone marrow; and the “conditionally essential” amino acids proline, glycine, and glutamine (which have anti-inflammatory effects).
In terms of nutritional density, kale is virtually unparalleled among green leafy vegetables.
Interestingly, it has a 3:1 carbohydrate-to-protein ratio – an exceptionally high amount of protein for any vegetable.
Like beef, it also contains all nine essential amino acids needed to form the proteins within the human body, plus nine other non-essential ones for a total of 18.
In addition, kale contains omega-3s in a beneficial ratio to omega-6, and is exceptionally rich in vitamins A, C, and K1.
It’s also loaded with vision-preserving lutein and zeaxanthin at over 26 mg combined, per serving.
Add to this an impressive list of minerals as well, including more calcium per gram than whole milk, and in a more bioavailable form. Other bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates and indole-3-carbinol have been shown to have anti-cancer properties.
Raw garlic and aged black garlic
Garlic contains a range of phytocompounds (plant chemicals) that synergistically produce a wide variety of responses in your body, including reducing inflammation and boosting immune function. It’s been shown to successfully combat even antibiotic-resistant infections.
Rich in manganese, calcium, phosphorus, selenium, and vitamins B6 and C, garlic is beneficial for your bones as well as your thyroid.
Beyond that, studies have demonstrated garlic’s positive effects for more than 150 different diseases, including cancer.
Black garlic, produced through a type of aging/fermentation process, has also been shown to have impressive nutritional properties.
One 2009 animal study found it was more effective than fresh garlic in reducing the size of tumors. In another study, black garlic was found to have twice the antioxidant levels as fresh.
Black garlic is also packed with high concentrations of sulfurous compounds, especially one in particular: s-allylcysteine (SAC), which has been shown to have a number of health benefits, including inhibition of cholesterol synthesis.
A wide variety of seeds can be sprouted, which maximizes their nutritional value.
For example, once sunflower seeds are sprouted, their protein, vitamin, and mineral content will typically provide you with 30 times the nutrient content of organic vegetables.
Based on 17 nutrients, including potassium, fiber, protein, calcium, iron, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, zinc, and vitamins A, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K, watercress scored a perfect 100 in a recent study titled, “Defining Powerhouse Fruits and Vegetables: A Nutrient Density Approach”.
Sprouts in general also contain valuable enzymes — up to 100 times more enzymes than raw fruits and vegetables — that allow your body to absorb and use the nutrients of other foods you eat.
The essential fatty acid and fiber content also increases dramatically during the sprouting process and, when the seed starts to sprout, minerals such as calcium and magnesium bind to proteins in the seed, which makes both the minerals and the protein more readily available and usable in your body.
Organic pastured egg yolks
Overall, eggs are one of Nature’s most perfect foods, loaded with high quality protein, healthy fats and cholesterol, vitamins, and minerals. Just make sure they come from organic pastured hens.
Egg yolks are a rich source of the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin: two powerful prevention elements of age-related macular degeneration; the most common cause of blindness, and the choline in eggs is important for brain health.
Proteins in cooked eggs are also converted by gastrointestinal enzymes,producing peptides (protein particles) that act as ACE inhibitors (common prescription medications for lowering blood pressure).
Liver from grass-fed animals is a superfood of the animal kingdom, and one of the most nutrient-dense foods you can eat.
For example, liver is nature’s most concentrated source of vitamin A (retinol), and contains an abundant, highly usable form of iron.
It’s also one of the richest sources of copper and folic acid.
Three ounces of beef liver contains almost three times as much choline as one egg, and it also contains a mysterious “anti-fatigue factor,” making it a favorite among athletes.
Shopping Wisely to Maximize Your Food Budget
Most people use standard measures of quantity when comparing prices, but a wiser strategy might be to focus on nutrient content instead. For example, conventional USDA prime beef may be cheaper than organic grass-fed beef pound for pound, but when you take nutritional factors into account, the latter provides far better value for your money.
As noted in the Valley News article:
“The corollary to the nutrition problem is the expense problem. The makings of a green salad — say, a head of lettuce, a cucumber, and a bunch of radishes — cost about $3 at my market. For that, I could buy more than two pounds of broccoli, sweet potatoes, or just about any frozen vegetable, which would make for a much more nutritious side dish…”
Here, I would add that if you really like salad, there are simple and very cost-effective ways to dramatically boost its nutrient content.
For example, adding a handful of sprouts, an organic egg, some raw nuts or seeds, with a drizzling of virgin olive oil on top in lieu of salad dressing would turn your nutritionally lackluster salad into a more nutrient-dense meal without adding much expense. An article in The Nourishing Gourmet lists 12 tips for “squeezing the most nutrient rich food from your dollar.” While a few years old, it’s as relevant today as it ever was. These tips include:
Buy more of the inexpensive varieties of organic vegetables. Less pricey produce include carrots, onions, celery, garlic, kale, chard, zucchini, cabbage, and broccoli — all of which contain valuable nutrients at a reasonable price, even when organic.
Make broth and say yes to liver. The nutrient value of both have already been addressed above, and in terms of cost, broth and liver are among the least expensive foods you’ll find.
Avoid food waste. Buy only what you know you’ll eat before the food goes bad.Alternatively, turn leftover veggies, meats, and other scraps into soup. Chicken carcasses can be boiled down into nourishing broth.
Prepare and cook foods to maximize nutritional value. Knowing how a food is affected by the way it’s prepared or cooked can go a long way toward maximizing your nutrition. For example, valuable nutrients in eggs are destroyed through cooking, so eating your eggs as close to raw or as lightly cooked as possible will optimize their nutritional potential.As mentioned earlier, grains and seeds gain a significant boost in nutrients when sprouted, and vegetables in general get a nutritional boost when fermented, as this makes them a great source of probiotics. If fermented using a specific starter culture, they can also provide ample amounts of vitamin K2.
Buy local pastured eggs. Eggs from truly organic, free-range chickens not only have higher nutrient content than commercially raised eggs, they’re also far less likely to contain dangerous bacteria such as salmonella. When buying local, you’re also getting fresher eggs, as they’ve not been shipped across the country.
Embrace traditional home cooking, and avoid buying prepackaged foods. This means cooking from scratch, using whole unadulterated ingredients, so you know exactly what’s in your meal.
This article is shared by Nutrition Breakthroughs, maker of the effective calcium,
magnesium and vitamin D based sleep aid Sleep Minerals II.
By Kris Gunnars, CEO and Founder of Authority Nutrition, BSc (Bachelor’s Degree in Medicine)
Shared by Nutrition Breakthroughs,
maker of Sleep Minerals II, the effective natural sleep aid with
calcium, magnesium and vitamin D **************************************
You may be surprised to learn that vitamin D is completely different from most other vitamins.
It is actually a hormone, a steroid hormone that is produced out of cholesterol when your skin is exposed to the sun.
For this reason, vitamin D is often referred to as the “sunshine” vitamin.
However, sun exposure is often inadequate these days, making it necessary for people to get more of it from the diet (or supplements).
This is important, because vitamin D is absolutely essential for optimal health (1).
Unfortunately, only a handful of foods contain significant amounts of this vitamin, and deficiency is extremely common (2).
In fact, according to data from 2005-2006, a whopping 41.6% of the US population is deficient in this critical vitamin/hormone (4).
This article explains everything you need to know about vitamin D.
What is Vitamin D?
Vitamin D is one of the fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K), meaning that it dissolves in fat/oil and can be stored in the body for a long time.
There are actually two main forms found in the diet:
Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol): Found in some animal foods, like fatty fish and egg yolks.
Vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol): Found in some mushrooms.
Of the two, D3 (cholecalciferol) is the one we’re interested in, because it is almost twice as effective at increasing blood levels of vitamin D as the D2 form (6).
Bottom Line: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that can be stored in the body for long periods of time. There are two main forms, D2 and D3, of which D3 is much more effective.
What Does Vitamin D Do in The Body?
Vitamin D is actually pretty useless at first.
It needs to go through two conversion steps to become “active” (8).
First, it is converted to calcidiol, or 25(OH)D, in the liver. This is the storage form of the vitamin in the body.
Second, it is converted to calcitriol, or 1,25(OH)2D, mostly in the kidneys. This is the active, steroid hormone form of vitamin D.
Calcitriol travels around the body, going into the nuclei of cells. There it interacts with a receptor called the vitamin D receptor, which is found in almost every single cell of the body (10).
When the active form of vitamin D binds to this receptor, it turns genes on or off, leading to changes in the cells (12). This is similar to how most other steroid hormones work.
It is well known that vitamin D affects various cells related to bone health, for example telling the cells in the gut to absorb calcium and phosphorus (14).
But scientists have now found it to be involved in all sorts of other processes, including immune function and protection against cancer (15).
So people who are deficient in vitamin D will be deficient in calcitriol (the steroid hormone form), so in effect they are deficient in one of the body’s critical hormones.
Bottom Line: Vitamin D is turned into calcidiol, the storage form of the vitamin, which is then converted into calcitriol, the active steroid form. Calcitriol binds to the vitamin D receptor inside cells, turning genes on or off.
Sunshine is The Best Way to Get Vitamin D
Vitamin D can be produced out of cholesterol in the skin, when it is exposed to the sun. The ultraviolet B (UVB) rays from the sun provide the energy needed for the reaction to occur (16).
If you live where there is abundant sun year round, then you can probably get all the vitamin D you need by just going outside and sunbathing a few times per week.
Keep in mind that you need to expose a large part of your body. If you’re only exposing your face and hands then you will produce much less vitamin D.
Also, if you stay behind glass or use sunscreen, then you will produce less vitamin D, or none at all.
This makes the advice to use sunscreen to protect against skin cancer highly questionable. It raises your risk of vitamin D deficiency, which may lead to other diseases instead (17).
If you decide to get your vitamin D from the sun, just make sure to never, ever burn.
Sunshine is healthy, but sunburns can cause premature aging of the skin and raise your risk of skin cancer (18).
If you’re staying in the sun for a long time, consider going without sunscreen for the first 10-30 minutes or so (depending on your sensitivity to sun), then apply it before you start burning.
Vitamin D gets stored in the body for a long time, weeks or months, so you may only need occasional sun to keep your blood levels adequate.
All that being said, not everyone (including myself) lives where there is sun year round. In these cases, getting vitamin D from foods or supplements becomes absolutely essential, especially during the winter months.
Bottom Line: Sunshine is the best way to get vitamin D, but sunscreen blocks its production. Many people don’t have access to sunshine for most of the year.
Very Few Foods Contain This Vitamin in Significant Amounts
Here is the vitamin D3 content of a few select foods:
Although fatty fish like salmon, mackerel, swordfish, trout, tuna and sardines are decent sources, you would have to eat them almost every single day to get enough.
The only really good dietary source of vitamin D is fish liver oils, such as cod fish liver oil, containing up two to times the daily value in a single tablespoon.
Keep in mind that dairy products and cereals are often fortified with vitamin D (21).
Some rare mushrooms also contain vitamin D, and egg yolks contain small amounts.
Bottom Line: Cod fish liver oil is the single best source of vitamin D3. Fatty fish is also a good source, but you have to eat it very often to get enough.
Vitamin D Deficiency is Serious Business
Vitamin D deficiency is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies.
Some people are at greater risk than others. Although the average is around 41.6%, this percentage goes up to 82.1% in black people and 69.2% in Hispanics (4).
Elderly people are also at a much greater risk of being deficient (22).
People who have certain diseases are also very likely to be deficient. One study showed that 96% of heart attack patients were low on vitamin D (23)
Unfortunately, vitamin D deficiency is a silent epidemic. The symptoms are usually subtle, and may take years or decades to surface.
The most well known symptom of vitamin D deficiency is a disease of the bones called rickets, which is common in children in developing countries.
However, due to public health measures back in the day, they started fortifying some foods with vitamin D, which mostly eliminated rickets from Western societies (24).
Deficiency has also been linked to osteoporosis, reduced mineral density and increased risk of falls and fractures in the elderly (25).
Studies have also shown that people with low vitamin D levels have a much greater risk of heart disease, diabetes (both type 1 and type 2), cancer, dementia and autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis, to name a few (26).
Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to a significantly increased risk of death from all causes (27).
Whether being vitamin D deficient actually contributes to these diseases, or whether people who have low vitamin D levels are just more likely to get them, is not as clear.
Bottom Line: Vitamin D deficiency is a well known cause of a bone disease called rickets in children. However, deficiency has also been linked to many other health problems, as well as reduced life expectancy.
Health Benefits of Getting Plenty of Vitamin D
Vitamin D has received considerable mainstream attention in recent years and decades.
Research on it has gotten lots of funding, and hundreds of studies have been done.
Here are some potential benefits of getting plenty of vitamin D:
Osteoporosis, falls and fractures: Higher doses of vitamin D can help prevent osteoporosis, falls and fractures in the elderly (30).
Strength: Vitamin D supplementation can increase physical strength, in both upper and lower limbs (31).
Cancer: Vitamin D may help prevent cancer. One study showed that 1100 IU per day, along with calcium, reduced cancer risk by 60% (32).
Depression: Studies have shown vitamin D supplementation to cause mild reduction in symptoms in people with clinical depression (34).
Type 1 diabetes: One study in infants found that 2000 IU of vitamin D per day reduced the risk of type 1 diabetes by 78% (35).
Mortality: Some studies have shown that vitamin D supplementation reduces people’s risk of dying during the study periods, indicating that it may help you live longer (36).
Insomnia: (A note from Nutrition Breakthroughs): Vitamin D is a proven insomnia remedy. The results of a clinical trial of vitamin D supplementation was published in a recent issue of the journal “Medical Hypothesis”. The researchers followed 1500 patients over a 2 year period and a consistent level of vitamin D3 was maintained in their blood over many months. This produced normal sleep in most of the participants, regardless of the type of sleep disorder they were experiencing. (end of the note from Nutrition Breakthroughs).
This is actually just the tip of the iceberg.
Low vitamin D levels have been linked to all sorts of diseases, and supplementation has been shown to have numerous other benefits.
However, keep in mind that much of this is not definitely proven. According to a recent 2014 review, more evidence is needed to confirm many of these benefits (38).
Bottom Line: Taking vitamin D supplements has been shown to have numerous benefits related to cancer, bone health, mental health and autoimmune diseases, to name a few.
How Much Should You Take?
The only way to know if you are deficient, and whether you need to take a supplement, is by having your blood levels measured.
Your doctor will measure the storage form, calcidiol or 25(OH)D. Anything under 12 ng/mL is considered deficient, and anything above 20 ng/mL is considered adequate. (Note: Some medical tests report results in nanograms (ng) per millilitre (mL). A nanogram is one-billionth of a gram. A gram is about 1/30 of an ounce. A millilitre measures fluid volume equal to 1/1000 litre).
The RDA for vitamin D in the US is as follows (39):
400 IU (10 mcg): Infants, 0-12 months.
600 IU (15 mcg): Children and adults, 1-70 years of age.
800 IU (20 mcg): Elderly and pregnant or lactating women.
Although the official cutoff point for vitamin D deficiency is 12 ng/mL, many health experts believe that people should aim for blood levels higher than 30 ng/mL for optimal health and disease prevention (40).
Additionally, many believe that the recommended intake is way too low, and that people need much more to reach optimal blood levels of the vitamin (41).
According to the Institute of Medicine, the safe upper limit is 4.000 IU (42).
For people who are at risk of deficiency, this may be a good amount to aim for. Sometimes doctors recommend taking much more than that.
Just make sure to take vitamin D3, not D2. Vitamin D3 capsules are available in most supermarkets and health food stores.
Vitamins A, K2 and Magnesium Are Important as Well
It’s important to keep in mind that nutrients usually don’t work in isolation.
Many of them depend on one another, and increased intake of one nutrient may increase your need for another.
Some researchers claim that fat-soluble vitamins work together, and that it is crucial to optimize vitamin A and vitamin K2 intake at the same time as supplementing with vitamin D3 (43).
This is especially important for vitamin K2, another fat-soluble vitamin that most people don’t get enough of (45).
Magnesium intake may also be important for the function of vitamin D. Magnesium is an important mineral that is often lacking in the modern diet (46)
What Happens if You Take Too Much?
It is actually a myth that it is easy to overdose on vitamin D.
Vitamin D toxicity is very rare, and only happens if you take insane doses for long periods of time (48).
I (Kris Gunnars) personally live where there is very little sun year-round, so I take 4000-5000 IU per day of a vitamin D3 supplement.
I’ve been doing this for many years now, and consider it to be an essential component of my personal health strategy.
This health news is shared by Nutrition Breakthroughs, a publisher of nutrition articles and supplier of effective natural remedies since 2002. Nutrition Breakthroughs makes the original mineral-based sleep remedy Sleep Minerals II, containing calcium, magnesium, vitamin D and zinc. It has been shown to be effective for sleeplessness and insomnia, as well as for heart health, restless leg syndrome, bone strength, menopause insomnia and teenage insomnia.
Doctor P. of Houston, Texas says: “I had developed sleeping problems and took two different sleep medications over the course of several weeks. When I discontinued them, the insomnia came back even worse. I literally got about 20 hours of sleep in 6 weeks time. Sleep Minerals II was just what I needed. I*ve been taking it for a couple weeks and getting many hours of sleep a night. As a doctor I would definitely avoid prescribing sleeping drugs. I would recommend Sleep Minerals II.”